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Species: Gymnura afuerae, Peruvian butterfly-ray

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snout long
disc besides eyes - straight edges
scattered large dark-edged pale spots



Gymnura afuerae (Hildebrand, 1946)

Peruvian butterfly-ray

An extremely broad, rhomboidal disc that is much wider (more than 1.5 times) than long; snout very bluntly pointed, relatively long - distance from line between front of eyes to snout tip > distance between eyes; front margin of disc straight, not convex besides eyes; eyes and spiracles on top of head, sometimes spiracles have tentacles; mouth arched, no papilla on its floor; jaws with many small teeth in bands; nostrils with a broad, smooth-edged curtain before mouth; pectorals extend well behind pelvic fin origin; pelvics with one lobe; tail very slender and short, no tail fin, but skin folds present on its upper &/or lower surfaces, 1-2 spines at its base; upper surface usually smooth, without denticles.

Upper surface brown, sometimes with scattered dark-ringed pale spots the size of the pupil; underside yellowish to whitish, with a broad brown side and rear margins.

Size: 31 cm long; 39 cm wide.

Habitat: sandy and muddy bottoms in estuaries.

Depth: to 30 m.

Costa Rica to northern Peru.

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  • Brackish
  • Marine
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Bottom only
  • Soft bottom only
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Mud
  • Sand & gravel
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
Feeding Group
  • No Data
  • Carnivore
  • Mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
  • Bony fishes
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • No Data
Egg Type
  • No data
  • No pelagic phase
  • Live birth
  • No pelagic larva
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • East Pacific endemic
  • Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic
Regional Endemism
  • TEP endemic
  • Continent
  • All species
  • Panamic province endemic
  • Continental TEP endemic
  • Continent only
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
  • South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
IUCN Red List
  • Not evaluated / Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 39
Depth Range Min
  • 0
Depth Range Max
  • 30