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Species: Bairdiella armata, Armed croaker

All Families:   All Genera:   All Species:

D 21-23
C: rounded
mouth opens under snout
preopercle - 2 strong spines
A: 2nd spine not reaching C

Bairdiella armata Gill, 1863

Armed croaker

Body elongate, oblong, compressed; head narrow, cavernous but firm to touch; snout short, blunt, overhangs horizontal mouth; mouth large (reaching to under rear edge of eye), opens at front; chin without barbels, with 5 pores; mouth large (reaching to under rear edge of eye), a little oblique, opens at front; teeth conical, in narrow rows; top corner of gill opening notched; lower gill rakers 14-16, total 22-24, longest gill raker longer than ½ gill filament behind it; preopercle  with 8-12 fine spines and two sharp spines at angle, the lowermost directed downwards or slightly forward; dorsal fin X, I, 21-23, deeply notched between spines and rays; anal fin II, 8, second anal spine very strong, longer than base of anal fin but not reaching tail fin;  tail fin bluntly rounded; scales rough, except smooth around eyes and on fins; pored lateral-line scales 46-49; the lateral line extends to the center of the end of the tail fin.

Color mainly silvery with fins (especially pectoral and pelvic fins) slightly yellowish; faint wavy stripes or dots sometimes apparent along horizontal scale rows of body.

Size: reaches maximum length of about 30 cm.

Inhabits inshore shallows, entering estuaries and coastal rivers.

Depth: 1-20 m.

The lower Gulf of California to Colombia.

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  • Brackish
  • Marine
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Mid Water
  • Bottom + water column
  • Bottom
  • Near Bottom
  • Mud
  • Estuary
  • Water column
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Sand & gravel
  • Freshwater
FishBase Habitat
  • Bentho-Pelagic
Feeding Group
  • Data
  • Carnivore
  • Bony fishes
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • No Data
Egg Type
  • Pelagic
  • No data
  • Pelagic larva
Global Endemism
  • East Pacific endemic
  • All species
  • Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Continental TEP endemic
  • 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic
  • TEP endemic
  • Continent
  • Continent only
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
  • Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos)
  • Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 30
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 20