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Species: Paralabrax humeralis, Peruvian rock-bass

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orange spots head to tail
oblique bar under eye
back - pale oval blotch
D: 3rd spine twice 2nd; end soft part convex
pectoral 17-19, straight lower margin

Paralabrax humeralis (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828)

Peruvian rock-bass

Body elongate, compressed; back not strongly elevated; forehead profile gently convex; head pointed; between eyes relatively wide (~ 20% of head length in adults), without scales; mouth large; rear of top jaw exposed when mouth closed, without accessory bone above it; teeth fixed;  roof of mouth with teeth on sides and center; lower gill rakers 16-20; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal X, 12-15, 3rd  spine longest, 2x length of 2nd, rear margin of soft fin gently convex;anal rays III, 7;  tail concave; pectoral long, reaching well beyond tip of pelvic, straight lower margin, 17-19 rays; pelvics inserted under or slightly behind pectoral base; scales small, rough; lateral line scales 63; rear of top jawbone without scales.

Head and upper body dark grey-brown, with orange and brown spots from head to tail; an oblique orange bar down from eye to corner of preopercle; cheek and operculum with scattered orange spots; body of smaller fish with  7 long dark bars, those in center of body Y shaped;  often a pale blotch below soft dorsal; dorsal, tail, anal, pelvics blackish; edges of soft dorsal, anal and tail tips orange-red;  tail base and fin sometimes with pale bars; pectoral reddish brown. Juvenile heavily spotted with orange, those spots forming 6-7 dark bars.

Size: 50 cm.

Habitat: rocky bottoms.

Depth: 1-180 m.

Colombia to Chile.

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  • Marine Only
  • Marine
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Bottom only
  • Reef (rock/coral/oyster)
  • Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
  • Rocks
  • Reef only
FishBase Habitat
  • Bentho-Pelagic
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • No Data
  • No Data
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Bony fishes
  • Octopus/squid/cuttlefish
Egg Type
  • Pelagic larva
  • No data
  • Pelagic
Global Endemism
  • TEP non-endemic
  • All species
  • East Pacific endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Continent only
  • Peruvian province, primarily
  • Continent
  • All species
  • Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily
  • Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
  • Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
IUCN Red List
  • Data deficient
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 50
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 180