Shorefishes of the Eastern Pacific online information system

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Species: Diplectrum maximum, Greater sand-perch, Torpedo sand-perch

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operculum: dark blotch
preopercular spur: narrow, pointed, 4-8 spines
A 2nd spine ~ 3rd

Diplectrum maximum Hildebrand, 1946

Greater sand-perch, Torpedo sand-perch

Body elongate, moderately compressed; angle of preopercle a narrow, round-pointed bony spur with 4-8 large spines, width of spur < height of rest of upper part of rear border of preopercle; snout and between eyes scaleless; lateral line complete; scales moderately small, rough; lower jaw strongly projecting, tip joins forehead profile; 17-21 gill rakers; dorsal X, 12; anal III, 7 rays, 2nd  spine about same length as 3rd; tail concave; 48-50 lateral line scales, 10-13 vertical rows scales on cheek.

Upper 2/3 of head and body dark greybrown, shading to white belly, throat, chest and under mouth; a large dark blue-grey blotch on upper operculum; upper body dark brown, with a pale stripe along mid-back; dorsal with bluegrey basal band, middle red-brown band, outer bluegrey band, margin red brown; tail dark greybrown, anal pale grey, front of pelvic dark grey; pectoral translucent yellowish brown. Juvenile with stronger colors; upper body dark brown, with a thin whitish stripe along the upper side, and a row of white blotches along the mid-side

Size: 39.5 cm.

Habitat: sand and mud bottoms.

Depth: 1-130 m.

Central California to the mouth of the Gulf of California to Peru.

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  • Marine
  • Marine Only
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Bottom only
  • Sand & gravel
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Mud
  • Soft bottom only
FishBase Habitat
  • Bentho-Pelagic
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • No Data
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Bony fishes
  • No Data
Egg Type
  • Pelagic larva
  • No data
  • Pelagic
Global Endemism
  • Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic
  • East Pacific endemic
  • All species
Regional Endemism
  • 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic
  • All species
  • TEP endemic
  • Continental TEP endemic
  • Continent
  • Continent only
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
  • Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
  • North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California)
  • Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos)
  • Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 39.5
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 130