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  • snout short ( < eye), blunt
    D: origin over center pectoral
    D & A rays not segmented
    tail ~60% of TL
    D & A join C, tail tip rigid
    both lips - large folds, upper high & covers divided hollow
    pectoral base extends above gill opening
  • snout long, overhanging , with ventral keel
    rear nostril: hole before mid-eye
    D: origin slightly behind pectoral base
    D & A rays segmented
    tail: ~ 60% TL, tip stiff, small C
    jaw teeth in bands, long patch on central roof of mouth
    pectoral base extends above top of gill opening
  • D origin behind pectoral base
    D & A rays not segmented
    tail < 60% TL, tip stiff
    top lip flange wide
    outer teeth form cutting edge
    hollow hidden by top lip flange is not divided
    pectoral base within limits of gill opening
  • snout large, conical, overhangs exposed toot patch
    D & A rays segmented
    tail > 2/3 TL, slender, pointed