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  • body oblong
    eye large
    mouth oblique
    both jaws: 1 row enlarged teeth
    preoperculum smooth/finely serrated
    A: 8-9 rays, 2nd spine robust, > 80% 1st ray
  • elongate
    D XI
    both jaws: outer row teeth larger
    preopercle: angle with 1-2 large spines
  • snout short
    oblong, robust
    C: straight or rounded
    mouth oblique, opens at front
    lower teeth simple, in bands
    preoperculum smooth/slightly serrated
    22-26 gill rakers
    A: 2nd spine 3/4 first ray, 9-11
  • oblong, compressed
    head large, spongy
    mouth oblique
    chin: 1 thin, flexible, poreless barbel
    preopercle weakly serrated
    A 2 small spines
  • elongate, compressed
    mouth large, oblique
    2 large canines - lower front jaws
    preopercle angle: 5-6 spines, lowest points down
    A: 2nd spine long, thin, 8-9
  • elongate
    large eye
    D: deeply notched, 2nd part longer base
    A 17-18
  • elongate
    large eye
    2 separate Ds, D1 longer base
    A 10-11