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  • body robust, deepest at D origin
    D: X-XI, 13-18
    C round/straight
    A 7-9
  • D XI
    preopercle angle - 3 spines point forward
    opercle - 3 strong spines
  • head deep, profile straight
    snout < eye
    D: XI
    preoperculum angle: strong hidden spine points forwards
  • D: IX, deep notches between spines
  • body deep, very compressed
    forehead oblique
    D: XI, 18-20
    grey + dark spots
  • body relatively deep, oval, deepest at D origin
    D X-XI, 13-15
    teeth depressible
    pelvics insert under/ before pectoral base
    A 9
  • large round lobes of D & A = 2 extra "tails"
    roof of mouth no teeth
    operculum without exposed spines
  • body elongate, deepest at A origin
    D: XI, 15-18
    A: 10-13
  • body oblong, compressed
    operculum: 2 flat spines
    1 D, 9-12 rays, spiny part low & longer base, strong notch
    body and head covered with small, rough scale
    teeth small