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  • length D2 base > distance D2 base to C base
    membrane under opercle - 5 rays
    pelvics fused in disc or slightly separated
  • nape +/- cirri
    1 D, more rays than spines
    C rays branched
    no scales
    with LL
  • large eyes on top pointed head
    D1 IV
    LL extends onto C
    gill opening = small pore on side
    preopercle: large hooked spine
    no scales
  • nape +/- cirri
    head often rough
    1D, continuous
    fin rays unbranched
    no scales
    no LL
  • ojos often stalked
    D & A long bases
    operculum: fringe of skin flaps
    LL: bent, ends under tail base
  • length D2 base < distance D2 base to C
    membrane under operculum - 6 rays
    pelvics widely separate
  • flat head, elongate body
    1 D, at rear, no spines
    pelvics form large sucker with papillae
  • nape + cirri
    1-2 Ds, more spines than soft rays
    fin rays unbranched
    body with smooth scales
    with LL
  • very elongate
    head without cirri
    D X-XXVIII, 28-66
    small mouth, lower jaw heavy, protruding
    pelvics I, 2-4, small, separate
    A 0, 23-61
  • bulbous head
    eyes large, high
    D X-XI
    large mouth
    pelvic: I, 5, outer 2 strong, unbranched
  • D IV-VI + I, 9-37
    mouth ~ vertical, lower jaw protrudes
    pelvics I, 4-5, nearly separate
    A I, 9-36
  • nape without cirri
    3 Ds: III + X-XIII + 7-10
    C 13, 9 branched
    rough scales