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  • nape + cirri
    1-2 Ds, more spines than soft rays
    fin rays unbranched
    body with smooth scales
    with LL
  • nape +/- cirri
    1 D, more rays than spines
    C rays branched
    no scales
    with LL
  • nape +/- cirri
    head often rough
    1D, continuous
    fin rays unbranched
    no scales
    no LL
  • length D2 base < distance D2 base to C
    membrane under operculum - 6 rays
    pelvics widely separate
  • length D2 base > distance D2 base to C base
    membrane under opercle - 5 rays
    pelvics fused in disc or slightly separated
  • bulbous head
    eyes large, high
    D X-XI
    large mouth
    pelvic: I, 5, outer 2 strong, unbranched
  • elongate, cylindrical
    head pointed
    D IV-VII (short), 19-28
    mouth large, protractile
    gill membranes unite under but free from throat
    operculum - stout spine
  • nape without cirri
    3 Ds: III + X-XIII + 7-10
    C 13, 9 branched
    rough scales