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  • ojos often stalked
    D VII-XXIII
    D & A long bases
    operculum: fringe of skin flaps
    LL: bent, ends under tail base
  • D1: II-III
    1-4 lateral lines
    gill opening on side, before pectoral
    pelvic I, 2-3
  • nape +/- cirri
    head often rough
    1D, continuous
    fin rays unbranched
    no scales
    no LL
  • length D2 base > distance D2 base to C base
    membrane under opercle - 5 rays
    pelvics fused in disc or slightly separated
  • D1: 0-V
    LL straight
    gill openings wide, reach under head
    behind operculum: large spine
    pelvic I, 5, under throat