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  • nape without cirri
    3 Ds: III + X-XIII + 7-10
    C 13, 9 branched
    rough scales
  • large eyes on top pointed head
    D1 IV
    LL extends onto C
    gill opening = small pore on side
    preopercle: large hooked spine
    no scales
  • nape +/- cirri
    head often rough
    1D, continuous
    fin rays unbranched
    no scales
    no LL
  • length D2 base > distance D2 base to C base
    membrane under opercle - 5 rays
    pelvics fused in disc or slightly separated
  • nape + cirri
    1-2 Ds, more spines than soft rays
    fin rays unbranched
    body with smooth scales
    with LL