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  • head small
    teeth = incisors, hockey-stick shape
    pectorals short
  • body elongate, oval
    D deeply notched, XIV-XXIII
    mouth small, thick top lips
    pectoral - lower rays with thick, free tips
    pelvic behind pectoral base
    scales small, smooth
  • D: XII-XIV, 12-15
    teeth: movable, tips flat & with 1-3 points
    center roof of mouth no teeth
  • no scales: tip snout, lips, chin
    chin: 2-6 pores + groove
    teeth conical, not on roof of mouth
    A III
  • D IX-XI, 22-27, spiny part much lower
    teeth pointed
  • no scales: snout, under eye
    chin no pores
    preopercle smooth
    jaws: side teeth = molars
    pectorals long