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  • D & A: large soft lobes = 2 extra "tails"
    roof of mouth - no teeth
    opercle - no exposed spines
  • D II-XI, 10-27, base soft part longer
    teeth: simple, canines, or incisors
    3 opercular spines
  • oblong, robust
    D notched, XI-XII strong spines
    small teeth: jaws, roof of mouth, tongue
    operculum: horizontal ridge + 2 spines
    scales small, rough