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  • head spongy, snout overhangs
    dark lines on scale rows
    D X-XI
    C: blunt point
    preopercle 9-14 serrations
    chin 6 pores
    21-26 gill rakers
    A 8-9
  • head spongy
    eye small
    C: long point
    chin: 4 pores, large knob
    preopercle: 4-9 spines
    A 8
    LL 41-46 pores
  • head spongy, forehead concave
    C: long point
    preopercle: 4-9 spines
    chin: 4 pores
    inside lower front teeth - black crescent
    pelvic + filament
    A 9
    LL 47-50 pores
  • head firm, forehead concave
    snout pointed, overhanging
    C: blunt point or rounded
    roof of mouth black
    preopercle: 2 spines, lower points down
    pelvics with filaments
    5-6 scale rows- LL to D origin
  • head firm, snout overhanging
    C: blunt point
    preopercle: 9-12 spines
    chin: 6 pores
    pelvic with filament
    17-21 gill rakers
    A: 2nd spine 2/3 1st ray
  • mouth ends under pupil
    C: angular point
    preopercle: 8-10 spines
    pectoral 16-17
    A: 8; 2nd spine long
  • body robust
    head spongy
    D XII + III
    preopercle: soft,membranous teeth
    A: 2nd spine short, 12-13
  • head spongy, nape scales rough
    D1 & pectorals black
    C: rounded
    roof of mouth pale
    chin with 6 pores
    preopercle: 2 spines
    gill rakers 41-43
    pectoral reaches A origin
  • head firm
    lines along scale rows
    chin - small knob, 6 pores
    preopercle 5-8 spines
    31-39 gill rakers
    A 11
  • head firm
    nape scales smooth
    pectoral bronze
    C: blunt point
    roof of mouth dark
    chin: 6 pores
    preopercle: 2 strong spines
    gill rakers 45-52
    pectoral reaches anus
  • head spongy
    snout v short; eye -large oval
    scales smooth - front D to LL
    chin: 4 pores, central ridge
    preopercle: 2 spines
    50-57 gill rakers
    pectoral long
    A 10-11
  • dark lines along scale rows
    D 24-26
    C: round or S shape
    preopercle: 8-10 strong teeth
    gill rakers 18-23
    A: 2nd spine thick, long, 7
  • elongate
    snout rounded
    C: S shape or rounded
    preopercle: 14-16 weak spines
    A: 2nd spine thick, long, 7
  • C: angular point
    preopercle: 5-7 large teeth
    A: 7; 2nd spine thick, 80% 1st ray
  • D 21-23
    C: angular point
    preopercle: 8-10 spines
    gill rakers 22-26
    A: 7; 2nd spine long, thick
  • oblique dark lines along scale rows
    C: S shape
    preopercle: 15-17 fine teeth
    pectoral 19-20
    A: 8, 2nd spine long, thick
  • head firm
    mouth large, oblique
    preopercle 2 spines
    36-38 gill rakers
    pectoral reaches anus
    A 9
  • head low, firm
    snout projecting
    C: blunt point to round
    preopercle: 2 strong spines
    roof mouth black
    pectoral base - black blotch
    7-8 scale rows, LL to D origin
  • head spongy; eye large
    very short snout; mouth opens at front
    C: long point
    preopercle: 1 strong spine
    29-30 gill rakers