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  • large white spots: flank ~ 6, back 2
    C: 3 bars - white, dark, orange
    Paralabrax albomaculatus, White-spotted sand-bass, Camotillo sand-bass
  • head, body & fins: dense orange spots
    D: 3rd spine > 3 times 2nd
    back: 2-3 thin pale stripes
    Paralabrax auroguttatus, Goldspotted sand-bass, Gold-spotted sand-bass
    13-14 gill rakers
  • head & upper body: lines orange spots
    D: 3rd spine ~ twice 2nd, soft part - convex end
    Paralabrax callaensis, Southern rock-bass, Callao sea-bass
    pectoral long, yellow
    A: spines white
  • forehead: yellow spots
    side head - 3 bars
    back: 2 rows rectangular white blotches
    D spines: 3rd & 4th = twice 2nd
  • orange spots head to tail
    oblique bar under eye
    back - pale oval blotch
    D: 3rd spine twice 2nd; end soft part convex
    Paralabrax humeralis, Peruvian rock-bass
    pectoral 17-19, straight lower margin
  • head: orange spots & lines
    tail base & fins: orange & brown spots
    body - ~ 7 long bars
    D: 3rd spine 3 times 2nd
    Paralabrax loro, Parrot rock-bass, Parrot sand-bass
    lower gill rakers 17
  • head, body & fins - dense dark spots
    oblique bar - eye to lower corner operculum
    ~ 6 indistinct bars on body
    spots form dark lines on lower body
    D: 3rd spine 3 times 2nd
    Paralabrax maculatofasciatus, Spotted sand-bass
    lower gill rakers 13-15
  • body: dark blotches & faint dark bars
    dark oblique bar: eye to operculum
    D: 3rd spine > twice 2nd
    Paralabrax nebulifer, Barred sand-bass