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  • blue-green + many irregular bars
    very elongate; snout = 1/2 head
    D1: XXIII-XXVII
    D & A: 8-9 flinlets behind
  • rear extension of scaly corselet narrow (1-8 scale rows)
    back: patch of lines reaches under D1 & over pectoral
    Auxis brachydorax, Frigate mackerel, Frigate tuna
  • rear extension of scaly corselet wide (14-30 scale rows)
    back: patch of lines not reaching under D1 or over pectoral
    Auxis eudorax, Bullet mackerel, Bullet tuna
  • lines on back: ~ 12 oblique
    black spots above pelvic
    Euthynnus affinis, the Kawakawa
    gill rakers 29-33
  • lines on back: 5-6 ~ horizontal
    black spots above pelvic
    Euthynnus lineatus, Black skipjack tuna
    gill rakers 33-39
  • cuerpo cubierto con escamas grandes, lisas
    eye low on side
    D XVII, long & low
    body covered with large, smooth scales
    Gasterochisma melampus, Butterfly kingfish
    lower jaw projecting
    pelvics fold into deep groove
  • D1 XIV-XVI
    Ds close
    Katsuwonus pelamis, Skipjack tuna
    belly: 4-6 dark stripes
  • upper body: few, oblique stripes
    Sarda chiliensis, Eastern Pacific bonito
    gill rakers: 23-27
  • back: many ~horizontal stripes
    Sarda orientalis, Striped bonito
    gill rakers: 8-13
  • D1: X-XIII; distance spine X to orgin D2 > distance spine I to X
    back - zigzag lines
    Scomber australasicus, Spotted chub mackerel, Blue mackerel
    flank & belly: lines of spots
  • D1: IX-X; distance between D1 & D2 < D1 base
    back: oblique wiggly lines
    Scomber japonicus, Pacific chub mackerel, Chub mackerel
    belly: without marks
  • dark blue
    female: 2 rows gold spots on flank
    male: no spots
    Scomberomorus concolor, Monterey spanish mackerel, Gulf sierra
    21-27 gill rakers
  • 4-8 rows round orange spots on side
    D front black
    Scomberomorus sierra, Pacific sierra
    12-17 gill rakers
  • body deepest under origin D2
    C: rear edge white
    Thunnus alalunga, Albacore tuna
    25-31 gill rakers
    pectoral: very long, passes D2, tip straight
  • D & A: very long yellow front lobes
    lower body - white bars (solid & spotted)
    juvenile: white bars (solid & spotted) on belly + rear body
    D&A finlets yellow + black edge
    Thunnus albacares, Yellowfin tuna
    26-34 gill rakers
    pectoral reaches D2 (adult shorter), tip straight
  • large eye
    body deep, deepest under center D1
    juvenile: white bars (all solid) on rear body only
    C: grey, no white border
    D2 & A yellow, finlets yellow + black edge
    Thunnus obesus, Bigeye tuna
    23-31 gill rakers
    pectorals: subadult- passes D2, tip points down; adult- reaches D2
    juvenile: white bars
  • D2 lobe higher than D1
    tail base keel black
    Thunnus orientalis, Northern bluefin tuna, Pacific bluefin tuna
    gill rakers 32-40
    pectoral short, < 80% head, not passing D1