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  • head bones weak, translucent
    black/dark red, no dots
    Ectreposebastes imus, Midwater scorpionfish
    scales smooth, tiny, not in rows
    LL in membranous groove
  • humpbacked; large eye
    head very spiny, spines branched, nape spiny
    red + white spots
    D spines I-III white
    fin borders white
    Idiastion hageyi, Galapagos humpback scorpionfish
    pectoral: center rays longest, 18
  • large eye
    red + yellow blotches + dense small dark spots
    D spines II & III v long
    Pontinus clemensi, Mottled scorpionfish, Spotted scorpionfish
  • D: 3rd spine elongate
    red + brown & olive spots on back, D & C
    Pontinus furcirhinus, Red scorpionfish
  • eye large
    narrow between eyes
    D - no elongate spines
    bright red, back with green blotches
    under head white
    Pontinus sierra, Speckled scorpionfish
  • pink + oblique bars
    LL: broken stripe
    D: no long spines
    D & C: spotted
    Pontinus species A, Rosy scorpionfish
  • eye small
    D: 3rd spine long
    red + yellow blotches & dark spots
    fins red, D membranes yellow
    Pontinus strigatus, Stalk-eye scorpionfish
  • red + yellow blotches, dense pale blue spots
    D: 2nd & 3rd spines long
    Pontinus vaughani, Spotback scorpionfish
  • deep pits before & behind eye
    scarlet + red blotches
    all fins: red bars
    Scorpaena afuerae, Peruvian scorpionfish
    ridge under eye - 3-4 spines
    body: no skin flaps
  • eye large, upper 1/3 with 9 cirri
    between eyes - 2 crests separated by deep groove
    Scorpaena cocosensis, Cocos scorpionfish
    ridge under eye - 1 small spine
    lower front body scales well exposed
  • deep depressions before & after eyes
    red brown
    body & fins dense dark spots
    scales smooth, small, >70 rows
    Scorpaena guttata, Spotted scorpionfish, Californian scorpionfish
    ridge under eye - usually no spines
  • shallow pit behind eyes
    color variable, mottled
    black blotch with yellow flaps over pectoral
    Scorpaena histrio, Player scorpionfish, Bandfin scorpionfish
    ridge under eye 0-1 spines
    body: many skin flaps
  • deep pits before & behind eye
    mottled + white spots
    inside pectoral: black blotch, rows white spots
    bars on C
    Scorpaena mystes, Stone scorpionfish, Pacific spotted scorpionfish
    ridge under eye: 3-4 spines
    body: many skin flaps
  • shallow pits before & behind eyes
    mottled red/brown
    pectoral: black tip
    soft D - rows dots
    soft D: 3-4 rows brown dots
    Scorpaena russula, Short-spine red scorpionfish, Reddish scorpionfish
    ridge under eye: 3 small spines
    lower front body scales imbedded
  • between eyes flat
    red/brown mottled
    soft D: large dark blotch
    Scorpaena sonorae, Sonora scorpionfish
    ridge under eye: 0-2 small spines
    lower front body scales imbedded
  • red bars: head 2, body 3
    D spines long
    Scorpaenodes rubrivinctus, Red-banded scorpionfish
    long snout
    pectoral - top ray long
  • no pit behind eye
    D: XIII
    Scorpaenodes xyris, Rainbow scorpionfish
    operculum - dark blotch
    pectoral: lower rays unbranched
    body scales rough
  • top head 6-7 pairs strong spines, 0 over center eye
    pink; gut lining v dark
    gill chamber slightly dark
    D ~12
    scales rough
    Sebastes cortezi, Cortez rockfish
    above front mouth: 2 spines, 1st points forwards
    LL 33-45
  • pink/yellow/orange
    back - green lines + 6 pale spots
    spine over center eye
    lower edge eye - no spines
    Sebastes exsul, Buccaneer rockfish
    gill rakers 31-37
    inside mouth & gill chamber pale
    pectoral 17
  • oval, deep
    head spines not strong
    spine under eye
    dark, reddish
    LL pale red
    LL 50-58
    Sebastes macdonaldi, Mexican rockfish
    bone above front mouth: 3-4 spines
    A spines small, 2nd < 3rd
  • red +/- dark blotches
    inside mouth & gill chamber black
    D 11
    Sebastes sinensis, Blackmouth rockfish
    no spine over center eye
    spines above front mouth point back
    scales smooth
  • pink to orange-red
    back - green lines + 6 pale spots
    spines on & under lower edge eye
    spine above center eye
    Sebastes spinorbis, Spiny-eye rockfish
    gill rakers 29-33
    inside mouth & gill chamber dusky
    pectoral 18
  • D XVI, 3rd spine ~4th
    Sebastolobus alascanus, Shortspine thornyhead
    gill rakers 18-23
    gill chamber pale
    pectoral: deep rear notch
  • D XV, 3rd spine v long
    Sebastolobus altivelis, Longspine thornyhead
    gill chamber black
    pectoral: shallow rear notch
  • very compressed deep
    D XII, sail-like, high at front
    Taenianotus triacanthus, Leaf scorpionfish
  • humped back
    red + black blotches - head, body & fins
    Trachyscorpia osheri, Galapagos thornyhead
    top lip broad
    pectoral: deeply notched, top rays longest, 22-23
    pelvic spine long
    longitudinal scales 59-60
  • back not humped
    Trachyscorpia verai, Ecuadorian deep-sea scorpionfish
    top lip narrow
    pectoral: deeply notched, top rays longest, 22
    pelvic spine short
    longitudinal scales 50