Family: DINEMATICHTHYIDAE, Brotulas, Dwarf Brotula
operculum with 1 spine
pelvic = 1 thread under operculum
Brotulas are long slender fishes of small to medium size (~5-22 cm); snout blunt, often overhanging mouth; eyes small sometimes vestigial; front nostril is immediately above the top lip (except in Dinematichthys); teeth on center of roof of mouth, and present or absent on sides; no central tooth patch at bottom of gill arches; a strong opercular spine; 0-7 elongate gill rakers; no fin spines; dorsal fin long, 56-191 rays; anal fin rays 40-124; pelvic fin with 1 ray, fin is a filament inserted under the rear part of the operculum; pectoral on lower half of side, 14-28; tail fin not fused to dorsal and anal fins; scales small, smooth, on body and head; brotulas are live bearers and males have an intromittant sex organ in a cavity on the underside of the body, this with 1-2 (rarely 3) pairs of bony accessory organs (pseudoclaspers), covered by a fleshy hood.
A family with 25 genera, 114 species; 18 species in 5 genera endemic to the Greater Caribbean.
PREPARED BY D ROSS ROBERTSON, AFTER MOLLER et al (2016)