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Species: Sphyrna gilberti, Carolina hammerhead shark

All Families:   All Genera:   All Species:

hammer = wide blade, front convex + central notch
D1 moderately large, erect
teeth smooth
pelvics: rear edge straight
externally = S. lewini

Sphyrna gilberti  Quattro et al, 2013

Carolina hammerhead shark

Head with broad hammer (width 24-30% of TL), narrow-bladed side extensions on the head; front margin of head broadly convex, and scalloped due to a prominent middle indentation, a more conspicuous notch near the end of each side of the hammer (which sets off the end lobe bearing the eye), and a slight indentation in front margin between the central and side notches on each side; teeth smooth; front teeth blade-like, with 1 point, upper teeth oblique, deeply notched on rear side, lower teeth straight, rear teeth like front teeth; five gill slits, last one over pectoral; first dorsal fin moderately large and erect, free rear tip not reaching level of pelvic origin; 2nd dorsal fin low but long, free rear tip nearly reaching caudal fin; base of anal fin noticeably longer than that of second dorsal fin; pelvics with ~ straight rear edge; transverse pit above tail base crescent shaped, a pit below tail base; tail fin strongly asymmetrical, notched under tip of top lobe, large lower lobe.

Grey-brown above, fading to white below; underside tip of pectoral white to dusky (60% of fish dusky); lower lobe of tail fin with dusky to black tip.

Size: at least 45cm, but undoubtedly much larger

Habitat: coastal.

Depth: 0-50 m.

Currently known only from South Carolina

Note: Genetically distinct from S lewini; currently  the only morphological feature that distinguishes these two is the number of  vertebrae on the trunk of the body: 85 (83-91) in S gilberti, 95 (92-99) in S lewini


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Salinity
  • Hypersaline
  • Brackish
Inshore/Offshore
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Bottom + water column
  • Near Bottom
Habitat
  • Estuary
  • Water column
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
FishBase Habitat
  • Bentho-Pelagic
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • No Data
Diet
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Bony fishes
  • Octopus/squid/cuttlefish
  • Mobile benthic worms
  • Sharks/rays
  • No Data
Egg Type
  • Live birth
  • No pelagic larva
  • No data
Global Endemism
  • Greater Caribbean endemic
  • West Atlantic Endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Continent
  • Continent only
  • GC endemic
Residency
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
IUCN Red List
  • Near threatened
CITES
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 45
Depth Range Min
  • 0
Depth Range Max
  • 50