Species: Epinephelus itajara, Goliath grouper, Itajara grouper, Itajara Epinephelus quinquefasciatus grouper
Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822)
Goliath grouper, Itajara grouper Epinephelus quinquefasciatus
Body robust and oblong, deepest at origin of dorsal fin, wide and flat between eyes; eyes small; rear of top jaw exposed when mouth closed, without bony knob at lower rear corner; teeth depressible; sides of roof of mouth with teeth; front nostril ~equal to rear nostril operculum edge with 3 flat spines; preoperculum bluntly angular, finely serrated; 21-24 gill rakers; dorsal fin XI, 15-16, the spines shorter than the rays, membranes between spines indented, length of base of soft part not longer than that of spiny part; anal fin III, 8; pectoral fin symmetrically rounded, 19; origin of pelvic under or behind pectoral base, shorter than pectoral; tail rounded; body scales rough, 61-64 on lateral line.
Large fish: grey or greenish with pale blotches and smaller dark brown or blackish spots scattered over upper parts of head, body, and on pectoral fins. Small fish (< 100 cm) greenish to tawny brown with oblique, irregular darker brown bars.
Size; The largest bony fish in the region, maximum size is 250 cm, and at least 363 kg; lives at least 37y; sexual maturity at 110 cm in males and 120 cm in females.
Habitat: rocky reefs as well as bays; juveniles in estuaries and mangrove areas.
Depth: 1-100 m.
Western and eastern Atlantic; Georgia to Brazil.
Note : Its sister species from the eastern Pacific is Epinephelus quinquefasciatus.
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- Inshore Only
- Water Column Position
- Reef (rock/coral/oyster)
- Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
- Sand & gravel
- Reef and soft bottom
- Submerged vegetation
- Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
- FishBase Habitat
- Reef Associated
- Feeding Group
- Bony fishes
- Sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds
- Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
- Egg Type
- Pelagic larva
- Global Endemism
- Transatlantic (East+West Atlantic)
- Greater Caribbean non-endemic
- Regional Endemism
- Continent + Island (s)
- Island (s)
- GC non-endemic
- Extends South of GC
- Also in Brazil
- Climate Zone
- Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
- Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
- Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
- IUCN Red List
- Critically endangered
- Not listed
- Length Max
- Depth Range Min
- Depth Range Max