Species: Epinephelus itajara, Goliath grouper, Itajara grouper, Itajara Epinephelus quinquefasciatus grouper
D spines shorter than rays
Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822)
Goliath grouper, Itajara grouper Epinephelus quinquefasciatus
Body robust and oblong, deepest at origin of dorsal fin, wide and flat between eyes; eyes small; rear of top jaw exposed when mouth closed, without bony knob at lower rear corner; teeth depressible; sides of roof of mouth with teeth; front nostril ~equal to rear nostril operculum edge with 3 flat spines; preoperculum bluntly angular, finely serrated; 21-24 gill rakers; dorsal fin XI, 15-16, the spines shorter than the rays, membranes between spines indented, length of base of soft part not longer than that of spiny part; anal fin III, 8; pectoral fin symmetrically rounded, 19; origin of pelvic under or behind pectoral base, shorter than pectoral; tail rounded; body scales rough, 61-64 on lateral line.
Large fish: grey or greenish with pale blotches and smaller dark brown or blackish spots scattered over upper parts of head, body, and on pectoral fins. Small fish (< 100 cm) greenish to tawny brown with oblique, irregular darker brown bars.
Size; The largest bony fish in the region, maximum size is 250 cm, and at least 363 kg; lives at least 37y; sexual maturity at 110 cm in males and 120 cm in females.
Habitat: rocky reefs as well as bays; juveniles in estuaries and mangrove areas.
Depth: 1-100 m.
Western and eastern Atlantic; Georgia to Brazil.
Note : Its sister species from the eastern Pacific is Epinephelus quinquefasciatus.
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- Inshore Only
- Water Column Position
- Reef and soft bottom
- Reef (rock/coral/oyster)
- Sand & gravel
- Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
- Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
- Submerged vegetation
- FishBase Habitat
- Reef Associated
- Feeding Group
- Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
- Bony fishes
- Sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds
- Egg Type
- Pelagic larva
- Global Endemism
- Transatlantic (East+West Atlantic)
- Greater Caribbean non-endemic
- All species.
- Regional Endemism
- Continent + Island (s)
- Island (s)
- All species..
- GC non-endemic
- Extends South of GC
- Also in Brazil
- Climate Zone
- Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
- Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
- Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
- IUCN Red List
- Not listed
- Length Max
- Depth Range Min
- Depth Range Max