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Species: Hemichromis letourneuxi, African Jewelfish, African Jewelfish Cichlid

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head, body, fins: blue spots
black blotches: opercle, mid-body, tail base
LL 17+10
lower body red

Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage, 1880

African Jewelfish, African Jewelfish Cichlid

Body elongate, ovoid, depth 36% (32.5-41.5%) SL, compressed; tail base relatively long 13.7% (11.1-16.7%) SL & shallow, 15.5% (15.4-20%) SL; head large, 35% (32-38.5%) SL; snout short, 9.1% (7.6-10.1%) of SL; upper head profile convex; narrow between eyes, 9.7% (8.3-10.6%) SL; lower jaw slightly prominent; mouth small, top jaw moderately protractile; each jaw with 1 complete row of teeth, no front canines; throat mill: lower bone triangular, length of side ~equal to distance between rear tips, rear edge straight to convex & with 20 (20-22) teeth, those with 2 points (inner point reduced to an unserrated, angled shoulder), rear teeth at sides stout & enlarged, central teeth enlarged bulbous molars; dorsal fin XIII-XIV (rear spines longer), 9-12; anal fin III, 7-9; ends of dorsal, anal and tail fins rounded; scales smooth, 26-30 in longitudinal series, 17+10 (15-19 + 7-10) on discontinuous lateral line.

Upper head and body olive brown, mauve on flanks; eye yellow; operculum, throat, belly and flanks reddish; vertical fins mauve to rose-grey; dorsal fin and upper edge of tail fin with red margin, and a narrow blue-white stripe inside that; head and body with 3 black blotches: top corner of opercle with a prominent rounded blotch, midflank with a large, vertical oval blotch that is entirely above body midline, end of tail base with a small vertical oval blotch; head, flanks and vertical fins with scattered blue spots, sparse in males, fewer in females; breeding male with olive green back; rose violet flank; red cheek, opercle, throat, breast and vent; central black blotch on flank surrounded by light yellow zone; color of vertical fins and blue spotting enhanced.

Reaches 15 cm

Lives in lakes and riverine flood plains; fresh to brackish water, canals and marshes; salinities up to 50 ppt

Depth range 0-5 m?

Widespread in northern and central Africa; introduced to southern Florida and Puerto Rico

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  • Brackish
  • Freshwater
  • Hypersaline
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Bottom only
  • Estuary
  • Freshwater
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
Feeding Group
  • Data
  • Omnivore
  • Data
  • Benthic microalgae
  • Insects
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
Egg Type
  • Benthic
  • Data
  • No pelagic larva
  • No pelagic phase
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Exotic (Introduced)
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Island (s)
  • Continent
  • Continent + Island (s)
  • Exotic (Introduced)
  • GC non-endemic
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
  • Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 15
Depth Range Min
  • 0
Depth Range Max
  • 5