Species: Lactophrys bicaudalis, Spotted trunkfish
Lactophrys bicaudalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Body oblong, thick, enclosed in a bony box formed by thickened, joined, enlarged scale plates that are usually hexagonal in shape; carapace has openings for mouth, eyes, gill slits and fins and tail, completely surrounds bases of both anal and dorsal fins, without spines before eyes, with a pair of spines at lower rear corner, last plates above and below tail base not prolonged as spines; mouth small, at front, lips fleshy; teeth moderate, conical, usually <15 per jaw; gill openings short, oblique slits in front of pectoral bases; no spiny dorsal, soft dorsal and anal fins at rear of carapace; no pelvic fins; tail base slender, flexible, tail fin a fan with a rounded end; dorsal, anal and pectoral fin rays branched; lateral line inconspicuous.
Pale grey to whitish; numerous dark brown to blackish spots, multiple spots per carapace plate; lips whitish; large fish with 2 prominent white spots behind eye. Juvenile: orange-white, with sparse round black spots.
Reaches 48 cm.
Found around clearwater reefs, and in seagrass beds.
Depth range: 2-95 m.
Georgia to Brazil; Ascension Is in the S Atlantic.
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- Marine Only
- Inshore Only
- Water Column Position
- Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
- Reef (rock/coral/oyster)
- Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
- Submerged vegetation
- Reef and soft bottom
- FishBase Habitat
- Reef Associated
- Feeding Group
- Mobile benthic worms
- Benthic macroalgae/seagrasses
- Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
- Mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
- Egg Type
- Pelagic larva
- No data
- Global Endemism
- Transatlantic (East+West Atlantic)
- Greater Caribbean non-endemic
- Regional Endemism
- Extends N + S of GC
- Island (s)
- Also in Brazil
- Extends North of GC
- Continent + Island (s)
- Extends South of GC
- GC non-endemic
- Climate Zone
- Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
- Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
- Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
- IUCN Red List
- Not evaluated / Listed
- Not listed
- Length Max
- Depth Range Min
- Depth Range Max