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Species: Apionichthys dumerili, Longtail Sole

All Families:   All Genera:   All Species:

oval, tapering
eyes tiny
tan, irregular dark blotches
gill openings narrow slits, separate
pelvics distinct, eye-side fin rudimentary/absent

Apionichthys dumerili Kaup, 1858

Longtail Sole

Body elongate, tapering to tail; eyes minute, barely visible, on right side of the body; mouth small, oblique, strongly arched, a little under snout; lips fleshy; preoperculum edge covered with skin but visible as a superficial groove; gill openings are narrow slits, separate, not joining on lower body profile; the origin of the dorsal fin well before the eye; dorsal fin 57-75; anal fin 40-55; eye side pelvic rudimentary or absent, separate from blind side pelvic; tail fin bluntly pointed, connected by a membrane to dorsal and anal fins; body covered with rough scales, skin not loose; a straight lateral line with perpendicular branches running across body.

Light brown, with irregular dark brown blotches.

Reaches 15 cm.

Estuarine, ranging into freshwater and marine habitats.

Depth range: 1-10 m.

Gulf of Paria to the Amazon mouth.

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  • Brackish
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Sand & gravel
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Soft bottom only
  • Estuary
  • Freshwater
  • Mud
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • Data
  • Data
  • Bony fishes
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
  • Mobile benthic worms
Egg Type
  • Data
  • Pelagic
  • Pelagic larva
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
  • West Atlantic Endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Also in Brazil
  • Continent
  • Continent only
  • Extends South of GC
  • GC non-endemic
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 15
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 10