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Species: Paralichthys lethostigma, Southern Flounder

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flat space between eyes
large mouth, 1 row canines both jaws
D 80-95; A 63-74
no ocelli
lower gill rakers 8-11
LL arched, 85-100

Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1884

Southern Flounder

Body oval, elongate (43-48% of SL); eyes on left side, relatively small; space between eyes flat and about as wide as an eye; upper profile of head slightly concave above eyes; mouth large, ends under or behind rear edge of lower eye; teeth are large canines, in a single row on each jaw; 8-11 lower gill rakers; dorsal rays 80-95, its origin above center between nostrils, front rays not elongated; 63-74 anal rays; pectoral fins on both sides of body, with branched rays, eye-side fin short (not reaching to straight part of lateral line) and rounded, 11-13 rays; pelvic fins with symmetric bases, base of neither fin on body midline, fins same size; urinary papilla on eye side, immediately behind level of anus; tail fin with a blunt point; eye-side scales smooth and small, 85-100 on lateral line; lateral line well developed on both sides, extending onto head, with branches to upper eye and below lower eye, strongly arched over pectoral fin.

Eye side brown; body and fins with diffuse dark spots and blotches, fading in large fish.

Size: 91.5 cm.

Habitat: mud and silty bottoms; marine and brackish with adults entering rivers.

Depth: 1-40 m.

N Carolina to the W Gulf of Mexico.

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  • Brackish
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Sand & gravel
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Soft bottom only
  • Beach
  • Estuary
  • Freshwater
  • Mud
  • Reef (rock/coral/oyster)
  • Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
  • Reef Associated
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • Data
  • Data
  • Bony fishes
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
Egg Type
  • Data
  • Pelagic
  • Pelagic larva
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Greater Caribbean endemic
  • West Atlantic Endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Continent
  • Continent only
  • Extends North of GC
  • GC endemic
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
IUCN Red List
  • Listed
  • Near threatened
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 91.5
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 40