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Species: Citharichthys arenaceus, Sand Whiff

All Families:   All Genera:   All Species:

between eyes: not narrow, no ridge
1st D ray 22-29% head
D 68-77: A 48-56
top jaw 39-44% head
lower head profile angular
gill rakers: 18, 4-6 upper
LL straight, 42-50

Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh, 1900

Sand Whiff

Body moderately deep (>45% of SL); lower head profile angular; snout longer than eye; no knobs or spines on head; eyes on left side, top eye slightly before lower; space between eyes not very narrow and not completely filled by bony ridge; mouth long (39-44% of head length), ends under rear part of lower eye; teeth ~equally developed on both sides of jaws, in 1 outer row of curved, fixed teeth and 1-2 inner rows of depressible teeth on each jaw, front teeth largest, no canines; gill rakers long and slender, 15-21 (mean 18) total rakers and 3-7 (usually 4-6) upper rakers; dorsal fin originates before rear nostril, 68-77, length of 1st dorsal ray 22-29% of head length; anal rays 48-56; pectoral fins on both sides of body, with branched rays; pelvics symmetrically positioned on belly, base of eye-side fin on body midline, short bases; tail fin with a blunt point; urinary papilla on blind side, immediately behind anus; lateral line well developed on both sides, eye-side line ~straight, with a small hump over base of pectoral fin, from edge of opercle to tail base; no branch under lower eye; scales rough on eye side; 42-50 pored lateral line scales.

Eye side brown, with many small dark specks; dorsal & anal fins spotted to barred.

Reaches 20 cm.

Lives on fine sand and mud bottoms.

Depth range: 0-10 m?

Florida to Brazil.

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  • Brackish
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Sand & gravel
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Soft bottom only
  • Freshwater
  • Mud
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • Data
  • Data
  • Bony fishes
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
Egg Type
  • Data
  • Pelagic
  • Pelagic larva
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
  • West Atlantic Endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Also in Brazil
  • Continent
  • Continent + Island (s)
  • Extends South of GC
  • GC non-endemic
  • Island (s)
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
  • Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
  • Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 20
Depth Range Min
  • 0
Depth Range Max
  • 10