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Species: Cyprinodon artifrons, Yucatan Pupfish

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cheek not deep
large scale behind operculum
both sexes: D with black spot
N Yucatan to Belize
teeth - 3 points
scales smooth
large scale behind operculum
male lower body & fins blackish

Cyprinodon artifrons Hubbs, 1936

Yucatan Pupfish

Body moderately deep and chubby; head flattened; snout short and blunt; front nostril not tubular; covering of eye not continuous with skin of head; cheek not deep (distance from edge of bone under eye to corner of preoperculum < length of opercle); mouth wide, oblique, at front, protrusible; teeth 3-pointed, compressed, in single series; usually no pores on lower jaws; dorsal fin short-based, 9-10 rays, at mid-body, its origin before anal fin origin; anal fin with 10-11 branched rays; pectoral fin short, 15-17 rays, low on side; dorsal, anal and pectoral fins much larger in males; pelvics small, 6-7 rays, on belly well behind pectoral base; tail fin bluntly rounded, 15 rays; body with large, smooth scales, 26-27 in lateral series; head scaly; an enlarged, elongate scale just behind upper corner of operculum; lateral line reduced to a series of pits along side of body.

Males olivaceus, whitish below; ~6 poorly defined dark bars on flank; pectorals, dorsal, anal and tail fins with black outer edges; a black spot with a pale front border at lower rear corner of dorsal fin; breeding males metallic blue on back; blackish below and on tail base, and on pectoral base, and on the pelvics and anal fins. Female light olive, with irregular dark bars on side, pale below; fins clear except a dark spot at rear of dorsal fin, anal fin slightly orange.

Reaches 4.9 cm.

In shallow water with vegetated bottoms, freshwater to full seawater.

Depth range: 0-2 m.

N Yucatan peninsula to Belize.

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  • Brackish
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Submerged vegetation
  • Estuary
  • Freshwater
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
Feeding Group
  • Data
  • Detritivore
  • Omnivore
  • Data
  • Benthic microalgae
  • Detritus
  • Insects
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
Egg Type
  • Benthic
  • Data
  • No pelagic larva
  • No pelagic phase
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Greater Caribbean endemic
  • West Atlantic Endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Continent
  • Continent only
  • GC endemic
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 4.9
Depth Range Min
  • 0
Depth Range Max
  • 2