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Species: Thalassophryne nattereri, Copper Joe Toadfish

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top head - scattered dark spots
D & opercular spines in dark blotches
fins: outer 1/3 black + white edges

Thalassophryne nattereri Steindachner, 1876

Copper Joe Toadfish

Head broad and flattened, greatly depressed; eyes on top of head, upward looking, eye moderate (diameter 0.31-0.54% of SL); narrow (0.47-0.74% of SL) between eyes; mouth wide; teeth are canines; gill openings restricted to side, before pectoral fin base; one (hollow) spine with venom gland on operculum; 2 dorsal fins, II strong, sharp, hollow spines with venom glands + l, 20 (19-21); anal fin 19 (18-20) rays, both fins separate from tail fin; fins long based, low; pelvics I, 2-3, before pectoral base; pectorals 16 (15-17) with glandular tissue scattered over outer part of fin; tail small, rounded; 1 lateral line, no light organs; no scales.

Head and body grey-brown; scattered small dark spots on top of head; upper body with dark bars under 2nd dorsal; bases of dorsal and opercular spines in a dark blotch; outer 1/3 of dorsal, pectoral and tail fins dark brown, shading to black towards edges of fins, edges of fins whitish.

Reaches 17.5 cm.

On soft bottoms.

Depth range: 12-73 m.

Colombia to Brazil.

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  • Marine
  • Brackish
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Soft bottom only
  • Estuary
  • Mud
  • Reef (rock/coral/oyster)
  • Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
  • Reef Associated
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • Data
  • Data
  • Bony fishes
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
Egg Type
  • Benthic
  • Data
  • No pelagic larva
  • No pelagic phase
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
  • West Atlantic Endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Also in Brazil
  • Continent
  • Continent + Island (s)
  • Continental primarily
  • Extends South of GC
  • GC non-endemic
  • Island (s)
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 17.5
Depth Range Min
  • 12
Depth Range Max
  • 73