Shorefishes of the Greater Caribbean online information system

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Species: Thalassophryne maculosa, Caño Toadfish

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eye moderate
body - small & large dark spots & dark blotches
fin edges not pale
pectoral 15-16

Thalassophryne maculosa Gunther, 1861

Caño Toadfish

Head broad and flattened, greatly depressed; eyes on top of head, upward looking, eye moderately large, diameter 0.35-0.78% of SL; mouth wide; teeth are canines; gill openings restricted to sides, just before pectoral base; one (hollow) spine with venom gland on operculum, gill openings restricted to side, before pectoral fin base; 2 dorsal fins II strong, sharp, hollow spines with venom glands + (17-20); anal fin 16-19; fins long based, low; pelvics I, 2-3, before pectoral base; pectorals 14-17 (usually 15-16) with glandular tissue scattered over outer part of fin; tail small, rounded; 1 lateral line, no light organs; no scales.

Body variable, with small or large spots, frequently large blotches; no pale margin on fins which are dark to their edges.

Reaches 18 cm.

Lives buried in mud or sand.

Depth range: 1-370 m.

Costa Rica to Brazil

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  • Marine
  • Marine Only
  • Inshore
  • Inshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Soft bottom only
  • Mud
  • Reef (rock/coral/oyster)
  • Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
  • Reef Associated
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • Data
  • Data
  • Bony fishes
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
Egg Type
  • Benthic
  • Data
  • No pelagic larva
  • No pelagic phase
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
  • West Atlantic Endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Also in Brazil
  • Continent
  • Continent only
  • Extends South of GC
  • GC non-endemic
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 18
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 370