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Species: Batrachoides surinamensis, Pacuma toadfish

All Families:   All Genera:   All Species:

head short, v wide, square
scales on nape reach onto mid-head
D 28-30
A 25-27
fins not barred
LL 54-67 + 48-66

Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Pacuma toadfish

Head and front of body greatly depressed; head short (27-39% of SL) and very wide, the front square when viewed from above; eyes very small, without tentacles over them, many tentacles around lower jaws; fine filaments on head only at front; 2 spines on upper opercle, 2 spines below and behind those; teeth pointed; gill openings restricted to side, before pectoral fin base; dorsal rays III (solids spines), 28-30; anal 25-27 rays; pectoral 20-22 rays; 3-11 discrete glands on inner surface of pectoral fin between bases of upper rays; glandular tissue but no pore just behind pectoral base; 2 lateral lines (54-67 pores on upper line, 48-66 on lower), no light organs; body covered with small imbedded scales; scales on nape extend forwards to a little behind eyes.

Brown; several prominent dark bars on head and body; fins without stripes or bars.

Size: 57 cm.

Habitat: muddy, brackish to marine bottoms.

Depth: 1-36 m.

Honduras to Brazil.

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  • Marine
  • Brackish
  • Inshore Only
  • Inshore
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Mud
  • Mangrove
  • Estuary
  • Soft bottom only
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • Data
  • Bony fishes
  • Data
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
Egg Type
  • No pelagic larva
  • No pelagic phase
  • Data
  • Benthic
Global Endemism
  • All species.
  • West Atlantic Endemic
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Also in Brazil
  • All species..
  • GC non-endemic
  • Continent only
  • Continent
  • Extends South of GC
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
IUCN Red List
  • Listed
  • Least concern
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 57
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 36