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Species: Styracura schmardae, Caribbean whiptail stingray

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disc front rounded to ~straight
top covered with denticles
1 pair tubercles on shoulders
tail long, no D, with low ventral keel
tail spines well to rear

Styracura schmardae (Werner, 1904)

Caribbean whiptail stingray

Head continuous with disc; disc oval, 1-1.1 times wider than long, evenly rounded to almost straight at front, outer edges and rear corners of disc rounded; snout length less than or equal to distance between spiracles; nostrils with a large fringed curtain between them and the mouth; floor of the mouth has fleshy papillae; long slender tail with 1 long venomous spine, not depressed at base, no dorsal or tail fins, without dorsal fin fold, with a very low, indistinct keel on underside that originates at the level of the spine, a ridge running along each side of front ¼ of the tail base; disc uniformly covered with small flattened denticles (enlarged on shoulders), but without large thorns.

Upper surface dark brown to dark olive or sepia; lower surface yellowish to whitish.

Reaches to 180 cm disc width.

Lives on shallow softbottoms; fresh to fully marine saltwater; common in mangrove lagoons.

Depth range: 1-30 m.

Gulf of Mexico to French Guiana.


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Salinity
  • Marine
  • Freshwater
  • Brackish
Inshore/Offshore
  • Inshore Only
  • Inshore
Water Column Position
  • Bottom
  • Bottom only
Habitat
  • Sand & gravel
  • Mud
  • Soft bottom (mud/sand/gravel/beach/estuary/mangrove/seagrass)
  • Soft bottom only
  • Estuary
  • Beach
FishBase Habitat
  • Demersal
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • No Data
Diet
  • Mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs)
  • Sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins
  • Octopus/squid/cuttlefish
  • Sessile crustacea
  • Bony fishes
Egg Type
  • No data
  • No pelagic larva
  • Live birth
Global Endemism
  • West Atlantic Endemic
  • Greater Caribbean endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Extends South of GC
  • Continent + Island (s)
  • Island (s)
  • Continent
  • GC endemic
Residency
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
  • Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
IUCN Red List
  • Listed
  • Data deficient
CITES
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 180
Depth Range Min
  • 1
Depth Range Max
  • 30