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Species: Mobula mobular, Spinetail Devil Ray

All Families:   All Genera:   All Species:

wings: front edges straight/slightly convex
broard dark band between eyes; behind eye -white crescent visible from above
D; curved, tip white
tail = / > disc width, row white tubercles along side, + spine
mouth under snout
spiracle above pectoral base, = short transvers slit under a ridge
belly: white

Mobula mobular (Bonaterre, 1788)

Spinetail Devil Ray

Disc strongly rhomboidal, much wider than long; wings strongly pointed, their front edge straight to slightly convex; head wide, projecting from disc; pectoral fins extend along head and form two large soft horns; front margin of pectoral fin ends under slit-like spiracle; a short keel present over the spiracle; eyes and spiracles on side of head; mouth ventral; teeth on both jaws; length of tooth bands ~ 75% of mouth width; teeth long, twice as long as wide, scattered; filter plates of gills with 18-31 side lobes, last lobe leaf shaped, plates separate at tips; tail with small, curved dorsal fin at base long, ~=/> disc width, slender, =/> disc width, its base oval, with 1 short, serrated spine, plus a row of soft tubercles along each side; dense denticles on upper surface of body.

Upper surface dark blue, lighter around the dark band between eyes; a conspicuous broad black band on back behind eyes (disappears in death); white of underside reaches up behind and above eye, visible from above; dark inside mouth; lower surface white; dorsal fin black with white tip; tubercles on sides of tail white.

Size: 350 cm wide.

Habitat: pelagic in coastal and oceanic waters.

Depth: 0-1112 m.

Circumtropical; the northeastern USA to Brazil

Note: Mobula japanica is a synonym.

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  • Marine
  • Marine Only
  • In & Offshore
  • Inshore
  • Offshore
Water Column Position
  • Near Surface
  • Surface
  • Water column only
  • Water column
FishBase Habitat
  • Pelagic
Feeding Group
  • Data
  • Planktivore
  • Data
  • Zooplankton
  • Bony fishes
Egg Type
  • Data
  • Live birth
  • No pelagic larva
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans)
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Also in Brazil
  • Continent
  • Continent + Island (s)
  • Extends South of GC
  • GC non-endemic
  • Island (s)
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
  • Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
  • Temperate (>35N)
  • Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
IUCN Red List
  • Endangered
  • Listed
  • Appendix II
  • Listed
Length Max
  • 350
Depth Range Min
  • 0
Depth Range Max
  • 1112