Shorefishes of the Greater Caribbean online information system

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Species: Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Blue Stingray, Pelagic Stingray

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disc wedge shaped, front convex
top & bottom v dark
1 row thorns back & tail
deep flap under long tail



Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)

Pelagic Stingray, Blue Stingray

Disc broad, wedge-shaped, wider than long, front broadly convex, sides straight; snout relatively long (8-15% of disc width); eyes very small; nostrils with a large fringed curtain between them and the mouth; mouth slightly arched, floor of mouth with cross row of 10-12 forked, fleshy papillae, teeth with quadrangular bases, low sharp tips; a broad flap between round nostrils and mouth; a row of small thorns along center of back; no dorsal or tail fins; tail much longer than disc length, with thick base, tapering to a slender point, with one long large serrated venomous spine; tail without a dorsal ridge, with a deep ventral fleshy flap from tail origin to the base of the spine.

Upper surface dark purple to green-blue to black; lower surface dark brown to black.

Size: 163 cm long, 80 cm disc width.

Habitat: pelagic, continental shelf and open ocean, occasionally nearshore.

Depth: 0-381 m, usually near surface.

Probably circumtropical; the central US to Brazil.

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  • Marine
  • Marine Only
  • Offshore
  • Offshore Only
Water Column Position
  • Mid Water
  • Near Bottom
  • Water column only
  • Water column
FishBase Habitat
  • Pelagic
Feeding Group
  • Carnivore
  • Data
  • Data
  • Bony fishes
  • Octopus/squid/cuttlefish
  • Pelagic crustacea
  • Pelagic jellyfish/ctenophores
Egg Type
  • Data
  • Live birth
  • No pelagic larva
Global Endemism
  • All species
  • Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans)
  • Greater Caribbean non-endemic
Regional Endemism
  • Also in Brazil
  • Continent
  • Continent + Island (s)
  • Extends N + S of GC
  • Extends North of GC
  • Extends South of GC
  • GC non-endemic
  • Island (s)
  • All species
  • Resident
Climate Zone
  • Equatorial (0-10N, Costa Rica / Venezuela)
  • Subtropical (23-35N, Florida / Carolinas / Bermuda)
  • Temperate (>35N)
  • Tropical (10-23N, Nicaragua / Cuba)
IUCN Red List
  • Least concern
  • Listed
  • Not listed
Length Max
  • 163
Depth Range Min
  • 0
Depth Range Max
  • 381