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  • low flat head
    long narrow snout
    space between Ds < head
    D1> D2; Ds with small spines
    teeth: top = needles, bottom = erect, oblique blades
    mouth short, narrow, transverse
    uniform black
  • snout short, < mouth width
    both Ds exposed short spines
    D1 similar D2; D1 short, no front ridge
    flank denticles very large, round, smooth
    top teeth = needles, bottom teeth = blades + oblique tips
    pectoral tips end well before D1 spine
    belly: no side ridges
  • snout >/= mouth width
    both Ds: exposed short spines
    D2 higher; D1 long, low, low ridge at front
    flank denticles large, round, +/- rear points
    top teeth needles, bottom teeth blades + oblique tips
    pectoral tips end well before D1 spine
    belly: with side ridges
  • body & fins soft & flabby
    D very long base, low
    long angular mouth
    many small teeth
    teeth similar on both jaws
  • heavy body
    D1 insertion nearer pelvics than pectorals
    tail base: no keels
    lower teeth: low, broad, oblique cusps
    tooth rows: top 35-39, bottom 45-57
  • slender body
    D1 insertion nearer pectorals than pelvics
    tail base: short keels
    lower teeth: high, slender, semi-erect cusps
    tooth rows: top 57-63, bottom 31-36