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  • D1 origin <1/3 interdorsal space behind pectoral axil
    D1 spine > D1 base
    denticles blunt, no points
  • uniform black
    2Ds with strong spines, D2 & its spine larger
    tail base short
    top & bottom teeth similar, 3 points
    mouth arched, moderately long
    no A
    belly long
    pectoral does not reach D1
    dense denticles
  • head flattened
    D1 origin over pectoral
    denticles sharp, in rows, skin very rough
    abruptly black below
  • head conical
    snout conical, very short
    uniform black
    denticles pointed, not in rows
  • head flattened, wide
    obscure dark marks below
    D1 well behind pectorals
    denticles pointed, not in rows
    under snout with denticles
    pectoral narrow, angular, + hairs mostly connected to fin web
  • head flattened
    white stripe between Ds
    D1 origin just behind pectoral free rear tip
    denticles pointed, not in rows
    black marks lower body: prominent
    no black blotches under tail
  • no white stripe between Ds
    D1 origin over/behind pectoral tip
    denticles pointed, not in rows
    2 black blotches under tail
  • D1 origin >1/3 interdorsal space behind pectoral axil
    D1 spine < D1 base
    denticles blunt, no points
  • D1 spine over pectoral free rear tip
    denticles pointed, not in rows
    under snout with denticles
    black mark over pelvics in 2 parts
    lower black marks prominent
  • head flattened
    blackish, without dark marks
    D1 spine well behind pectorals
    denticles pointed, not in rows
    under snout with denticles
    all fins heavily fringed with free hairs
  • moderately slender
    under snout: no denticles
    D1 origin over inner pectoral margin
    D2 twice D1
    fin edges not hairy
    denticles: low, robust, hooked, conical points, not in rows
    pectoral rounded