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  • disc heart-shaped, front edge undulating
    snout flexible, short, blunt, pale underneath
    1 central interrupted row thorns: nape to D
    top disc mottled + ocelli
    pelvic: front lobe 65-80% rear lobe
  • disc heart-shaped, front edge undulating
    snout flexible, short, blunt
    thorns: 3 rows nape to D
    top disc: 4-8 symmetric white spots
    pelvic: front lobe 67-76% rear lobe
  • disc heart-shaped, front edge undulating
    snout flexible, short, blunt, dark underneath
    3 central rows thorns: nape to D
    top disc: uniform to mottled
    pelvic: front lobe 66-85% rear lobe
  • disc heart-shaped, front edge undulating
    snout flexible, short, blunt
    3 central rows thorns: nape to D
    C: with lower lobe
    under disc dark
    lower jaws with central spatula
    pelvic: front lobe 65-80% rear lobe
  • disc heart-shaped, front edge undulating
    snout flexible, short, blunt
    3 central rows thorns, nape to D
    C without lower lobe
    under disc dark
    lower jaws: no central spatula
    pelvic: front lobe 66-77% rear lobe
  • disc circular
    snout very blunt
    side corner of disc with arm
    under front edge of disc: band of claws
    top disc + blotches
  • disc circular
    snout very blunt
    side edge of disc rounded
    under front edge of disc: band of claws
    top disc: elongate ocelli
  • top pale brown
    central disc thorns: 1 row at front, gap, 3 rows at rear
    shoulder 3-4 thorns
    Ds & C black
    Ds far apart
    no pits at corners nasal curtain
    under tail + denticles
  • top disc dark blotches, tail dark crossbars
    central disc thorns: small, 1 row 72 to D
    shoulder: 0/2 thorns
    no pits at corners nasal curtain
    pelvics: front lobe 70% rear lobe
  • top uniform color
    center disc thorns: 1 row, 4 + space+ ~54 to D
    shoulder 1-2 thorns
    no pits at corners nasal curtain
  • top disc dark blotches, tail dark crossbars
    center disc thorns: 1 row 45-70 nape to front 1/2 tail
    shoulder 2-4 thorns
    thorns on center disc & tail large
    no pits at corners nasal curtain
    pelvic: front lobe = rear lobe
  • brown above, yellow below
    central disc thorns: 3-4 rows rear disc to D
    triangle of thorns: nape & shoulders
    no pits at corners nasal curtain
    pelvic: front lobe 80-100% rear lobe
  • disc wider than long, angular side tips
    snout short, blunt, tip firm
    under disc with denticles
    top brown, +/- blotches; C black
    tail slender, long, usually no D
    pelvics = 1 triangular lobe
  • disc heart-shaped, front edges undulating
    snout short, round, tip flexible, pectorals almost to tip
    top disc & tail: dense fine denticles
    nasal curtain with pits in corners
    front pelvic lobe >80% rear lobe
  • disc heart shaped
    snout short, flexible, round + conical tip
    no Ds
    pelvics = 1 wing-like, rounded lobe