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  • dense red spots + pale oblique lines
    in mouth orange
    pectoral edge yellow
    D & A end angular
    extruded rays in D, C & A
    juv: yellow + dark stripe - snout to rear body
    preopercle - no notch
  • grey + white blotches & spots
    eye to lower head & body: dark wavy stripes
    preopercle - small lobe
    juv: tail base - black saddle
    lower gill rakers 32-36
    D & A - end round
  • grey + red-brown spots, dark quadrangular blotches in pale mesh
    pectoral margin pale/yellow
    C wide black margin, white edge
    D & A ends round
    gill rakers 19-27, lower 9-16
    rear nostril ~ front nostril
    preopercle rounded
  • stripes back from eye; body - pale spots
    preopercle notched
    C rays extended in adult
    lower gill rakers 18-23
    D end angular
    A end pointed
  • upper 1/2: uniform or dense brown spots
    spiny D edge, lips & in mouth yellow
    pectoral: dark rays, white rear margin
    D & A: no dark spots
    C: rays project evenly
    gill rakers 23-27
    preopercle: notch above angle
    juv: bicolored - dark above, white below, yellow spiny D
  • grey-brown + dark mottling & wavy lines
    eye: radiating dark lines
    D & A: ends dark, white border, round
    C dark, thin blue margin
    preopercle notched
  • all body: brown spots, usually in paw-print clusters
    mouth +/- yellow
    D & A with dark spots
    C dark, pale border, projecting rays uneven
    pectoral edge: dark inside white
    preopercle notched
    lower gill rakers 17-21
    A - end pointed rays 6-8 project
    juvenile colored like adult
  • head & body: reddish spots + dark oval blotches in pale mesh
    pectoral: outer 1/3 abruptly yellow
    D & A ends round