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  • disc oval/triangular
    rostrum = spiny shelf over obvious lure
    oval disc
    subopercular spine large, with 4-8 spinelets
    pectoral not attached to tail
    underbody with scales
  • no tubercles over eye
    inner of 3 tubercles on shoulder: small, blunt
    pectoral: 2-3 bars across whole fin
    back: fine dark meshwork
    tubercles small, sharp
    tail base: sparse tubercles
  • back: large, sharp tubercles
    pectoral: 1 broad bar +1 thin, edge yellow
    on top eye: row tubercles
    all 3 tubercles on shoulder: large, sharp
    back: fine dark meshwork
    tail base - many tubercles
    juv: pectoral base - incomplete dark blotch
  • pectoral: dark blotch
    C: 1-3 dark bars
    back: no strong mesh pattern
    no or few tubercles on tail base
  • back: pale reticulum
    pectoral: narrow inner bar + broad outer bar
    tail base: many tubercles
    over eye: tubercles rare
    back: tubercles blunt
    3 tubercles behind eye poorly developed
  • disk triangular
    rostrum short, slender, upturned
    subopercular spine large, thick, curves back
    pectoral separated from tail
    under body scaled
    under tail: 2 rows cones + dense prickles
  • snout: 3 cones
    no subopercular spine
    pectoral separate from tail
    underside - 2 rows cones + dense prickles