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  • snout v blunt, square, = large eye
    dark body, black fins
    D & C fully joined to C
    rear top jaw not expanded
  • head: prominent papillae & flaps
    A 51-57
    C 10
  • head: few, small, scattered papillae
    A 40-49
    C 8
  • head partly scaled
    dark + black fins
    D & A join C
    top jawbone - rear expanded
    roof mouth - no side teeth
    LL in =/>2 series papillae
  • eye =/snout
    head scaled
    opercle - strong spine
    preopercle - 2-3 spines at angle
    base gill arches: 1 tooth patch
    pelvic = 1 filament under preopercle
  • head: loose thick skin covers eyes, many filaments
    inside nostrils black
    no scales
    preopercle - no spine
    pectoral base - long bones
    LL: 12 dark papillae before anus
  • papillae cover snout
    lips fringed
    head scaled
    operculum & preoperculum - no spines
    3 gill rakers
    pelvic: 2 rays under preoperculum