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  • disc width >70% TL
    front center disc - short row thorns
    pectoral base: dark-ringed ocellus
  • disc center: only thorns - 1 pr nape
    top uniform; bottom darker
    inconspicuous pores under snout
    tail thorns: 1 row 12-15 + 1 between Ds
  • thorns disc center: shoulders + 1 row ~36 nape to D
    top uniform color
    pores under snout black
  • center disc no thorns
    top + dark spots
    distance between Ds ~ base D1
    top brown + dark spots; bottom grey/black
    pores under snout dark
    tail: side thorns not hooked
    tail thorns: 3 rows, center - 13-26 + 3-6 between Ds
  • disc center no thorns
    top uniform color
    distance between Ds < base D1
    top disc uniform; pale below
    pores under snout black
    tail: side thorns compressed, hooked
    tail thorns: 3 rows, center - 31-48 + 1 between Ds
  • disc center no thorns
    Ds & C black
    top uniform; bottom cream/dusky
    pores under snout dark
    tail 1 row thorns
  • disc ~rhomboidal/rounded
    snout short to medium, tip stiff
    eyes + semicircle of thorns
    center disc: row thorns shoulder to C
    nape thorns in triangle
    top disc & tail : denticles coarse, not dense
    top dark/light grey, bottom darker
    tail thorn rows: central & side
    tail 60% TL
  • disc heart shaped, round outer corners
    snout short, blunt, rounded, tip stiff
    eyes + semicircle of thorns
    1 row thorns shoulder to tail base
    nape thorns in triangle
    top disc & tail : denticles coarse, not dense
    top dark grey, bottom black
    tail thorn rows: central & side
    tail 56-65% TL
  • disc heart shaped, outer corners rounded
    snout medium length, angular, tip stiff
    eyes + semicircle of thorns
    1 row thorns shoulder to tail
    nape thorns in triangle
    top disc & tail : denticles dense, fine
    top & bottom black
    tail thorn rows: central & side
    tail 53% TL
  • eye length ~1/3 snout length
    disc width <65% TL
    center disc - 1 row of thorns
    shoulder 1+ thorns
    snout side - slightly concave
    pectoral base - dark centered ocellus
  • top - many irregular dark spots & narrow cross-bar
    nape & shoulder - thorns not in triangular patch
    all center back - 1 row thorns
  • eye length ~20% snout length before eye
    disc width < 65% TL
    all center disc - 1 row of thorns
    shoulder - no thorns
    snout side distinctly concave
    pectoral base ocellus- dark center, yellow edge