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  • snout and chin - 6 barbels each
  • eye = / < snout
    head scaled
    opercle - strong spine
    preopercle - 2-3 spines at angle
    base gill arches: 1 tooth patch
    pelvic = 1 filament under preopercle
  • eye ~snout
    head scaled
    operculum: large spine
    preoperculum: 1-2 small spines
    base gill arches: 2 tooth patches
    pelvic = 2 rays under preoperculum
  • snout: spine (if present) sharp
    down-pointing
    head scaleless
    pelvic = 2 filaments under eye
    scales: elongate, in oblique rows
  • snout spine: blunt, points obliquely up
    head scaleless
    pelvic = 2 unequal threads under eye
    scales small, elongate, oblique pattern
  • papillae cover snout; lips fringed
    head scaled
    operculum & preoperculum - no spines
    3 gill rakers
    pelvic: 2 rays under preoperculum