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  • head shield rough at front, with narrow groove
    roof mouth - 1 pair patches molar teeth
    gill opening: side only, membrane below fused to throat
  • head shield: non-granular at front, + narrow deep central groove
    roof mouth: 4 tooth patches: rear pair oval
    rear edge 1st 2 gill arches - no or few tiny rakers
    gill opening wide, membrane with 5 rays
  • 2 pair barbels, upper = long ribbon
    pectoral spine with long ribbon
  • head shield non-granular at front, groove wide & shallow
    roof mouth - 2 pairs tooth patches, side patches triangular
    rear edge 1st 2 gill arches - no rakers
    gill opening wide
  • rough part of head shield extends forwards
    plate at base D spine large & wide
    usually skin fold between rear nostrils
    top jaw: side front bone concave
    roof mouth - 2 pair tooth patches