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  • disc heart-shaped, front edges ~straight
    snout pointed, tip firm
    pectorals end before snout tip
    tail ~1/2 TL
    no thorns on rear 1/3 tail
  • disc rhomboidal, corners angular
    snout short, firm
    head thorny
    disc: central row very large thorns - nape to D
    tail short, stout
  • disc heart-shaped, front edge undulating
    snout flexible, short, blunt
    central row thorns: nape to D
    pelvic: front lobe 65-85% rear lobe
  • disk diamond shaped
    snout triangular, no filament
    tail thick, 2 Ds
    pelvics: front lobe = leg
  • disc circular
    snout very blunt
    under front edge of disc: band of claws
  • snout long, concave sides, firm tip
    pectoral rays separate from snout
    with Ds
    center disc no thorns
    pelvics: rear lobe larger
    belly: pores dark
  • disc wider than long, angular side tips
    snout short, blunt, tip firm
    tail slender, long, +/- D
    C = 2 unjoined lobes
    pelvics = 1 triangular lobe
  • snout tip firm, not long, sides straight to convex
    nape - triangular patches thorns
    C > 15 central thorns before D1
    front pectoral rays not extending to ~snout tip
    small spots, some in rosettes
    pectoral base - no ocelli
    underside - pores not dark
  • disc heart-shaped, front edges undulating
    snout short, round, tip flexible, pectorals almost to tip
    top disc & tail: dense fine denticles
    nasal curtain with pits in corners
    front pelvic lobe > 80% rear lobe
  • disc heart shaped
    snout short, flexible, round + conical tip
    no Ds
    pelvics = 1 wing-like, rounded lobe
  • disc rhomboidal
    snout tip stiff
    eye thorns in half rings
    disc: top uniform color; bottom often darker
    thorns: central row shoulder to tail, often with side rows
    tail = / > disc
  • rhomboidal disc
    snout broadly angular, tip firm, often extended
    top disc often no denticles
    nape: no thorn triangle
    center back: 1 row small thorns
    pectorals: 1 pair ocelli
    pores under disc not dark
  • disc heart-shaped
    snout long, with filament
    tail thin, no Ds
    pelvics: front lobe separate, = leg
  • disc heart-shaped
    snout long, with filament
    tail thin, no Ds
    pelvics: front lobe separate, = leg