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  • no nape crest
    D 90-109 elements, spiny part slightly < soft part, notch between spines & rays
    C small, forked
    pelvics: absent in adults, I tiny spine in juveniles
  • crest on nape
    eyes not large, on side
    D elements 116-123, few front weak spines, no notch
    C small, forked
    pelvic tiny: I,1
  • no nape crest
    D XXXI-XLVI, 68-112, notched, spiny part ~1/2 soft part
    C small, forked
    pelvics tiny I,1
  • crest over eye to nape, head profile steep
    eye not large, on side
    D no notch, 81-93 elements, 1st spine not elongate
    C small, forked
    pelvic = I, 0, like a scale
  • head long, + nape crest
    eye large, high on head
    D no notch, VII-X weak spines
    C small, forked
    pelvic tiny, I, 1-2
  • ribbon-like, v compressed; long snout; large eye
    D III, 115-135, no notch
    A = tiny, imbedded spines
    tail base slender, tapering, pointed, no C
    large mouth, lower jaw projecting
    large fangs
    no pelvics