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  • head spines strong, multi-pointed
    no pit behind eyes
    ridge under eye 5-8 spines
    D XII
    scales rough
    preopercle: 1st spine longest
    pectoral: center point, + branched rays
    LL complete
  • no pit behind eyes
    D XII, 11.5+
    roof mouth + side teeth
    ridge under eye - no spines
    preoperculum - 2nd spine largest
  • no pit behind eyes
    D XII, 9.5-10.5
    roof mouth with side teeth
    ridge under eye - 3 spines
    preoperculum - 1st spine largest
    pectoral: central rays longest, 16-18, upper branched
    scales rough
  • no pit behind eyes
    D XII, 9
    LL = front 4-5 pores only
    ridge under eye: 5-6 spines
    preoperculum - 1st spine largest
    pectoral - center rays longest, 15-17, upper rays branched
    scales rough
  • no pit behind eyes
    D XII, 8-12
    roof mouth with teeth
    ridge under eye: 3-4 spines
    preoperculum - 1st spine largest
    pectoral: no rays branched
    body scales rough
  • normally pit behind eyes
    D: XII, 7-10
    roof of mouth with teeth
    ridge under eye 1-4 spines
    preoperculum - 1st spine largest
    pectoral: upper rays branched
    scales large, smooth
  • no pit behind eyes
    roof mouth - teeth center only
    D: XIII, 8-10
    ridge under eye: 1-4 spines
    scales rough
  • no pit behind eyes
    preopercle: spine I longest
    pectoral: top point, 21-24, top rays branch
    LL complete
    D XII
    scales rough