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  • top jaw reaches to/past preoperculum
    D origin over/before A origin
    gill rakers < 36
    top limb 3rd gill arch: 6-7 rakers
  • top jaw to before/onto preoperculum
    gill rakers 100+
    top limb 3rd gill arch: no rakers
    A long base
  • top jaw short, blunt, not/reaching preoperculum
    gill rakers 14-35
    short gill branch under gill cover
    A moderate base, origin under rear 1/2 D
  • top jaw not to edge preoperculum
    gill rakers > 45
    wide, long membrane under operculum
    A long base, origin under rear 1/3 D
  • top jaw to front edge preoperculum
    body elongate, oval
    gill rakers < 46
    long gill branch under operculum
    A short base, origin behind D base
  • lower jaw: large canines
    top jaw reaches end preoperculum
    A origin under rear 1/3 D
  • top jaw, just reaches lower jaw articulation
    D origin behind A origin
    base of gill arches with teeth
    12-14 gill rakers
    pectorals long
    A long base