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  • head deep, profile straight
    snout < eye
    D XI, 17-19
    C rounded
    teeth depressible
    preoperculum: strong hidden spine points forwards
  • body deep, very compressed
    forehead oblique
    D XI, 18-20
    C straight
    teeth depressible
    pectorals >> pelvics
  • D VIII, 13
    top jaw end - hidden bony knob
    preopercle - large, forward-curved spine
    operculum - central spine long
  • body deep, compressed
    forehead straight
    D X (membranes not indented), 14-17, no notch
    C slightly forked
    teeth fixed
    LL 48-53
  • oblong, compressed
    3 "tails": C + large soft lobes of D & A
    D XII, 15-16, no notch
    preopercle strongly serrated
  • D X, 15-17, weak notch
    maxilla not scaled
    gill rakers 14-31
    preoperculum: +/- spines point forwards
    LL 28-46