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  • front nostril at top lip
    head & body scaled
    C free from D&A
    base of gill arches: no tooth patch
    operculum with 1 spine
    male sex organ with 1 or more bony accessory parts, in cavity with fleshy hood
    pelvic = 1 thread under operculum
  • front nostril on top lip
    male sex organ without bony appendages, merged with fleshy hood
    C usually fused to D&A
    no tooth patches on base of gill arches
    operculum with spine
    pelvic: absent or 1 thread under operculum
  • front nostril centered between top lip & rear nostril
    D, A & C continuous
    pelvics: threads under throat