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  • head broad, snout flat
    large spiracle
    2 Ds +/- spines (spines small, grooved, both fins)
    D1 origin well before pelvics
    5 gill slits, before pectoral
    top teeth narrow; bottom teeth blades
    no A
  • both Ds - grooved spine
    D1 = / > D2
    D1 origin over/behind pectoral base
    C v asymmetrical, notch under top lobe, base no keel
    top & bottom teeth dissimilar, top << bottom
    no A
  • head narrow, conical
    large spiracles
    Ds small, rounded, usually no spine, D1 < / = D2
    top teeth - narrow needles, bottom - broad blades
    no A
  • snout long, bell-shaped
    deep groove before oval eyes
    D closer to pectoral than pelvic
    long angular mouth
    many small teeth
    teeth similar on both jaws
  • both Ds: ungrooved spine
    C: base keeled, asymmetric, large lower lobe, top lobe not notched
    top & bottom teeth similar: blade with one oblique point
    no A