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  • eyes on top of head
    D & A long based
    mouth very oblique, opens up
    operculum: fringe of skin flaps
    LL: bent, complete
  • +/- cirri: nostrils, eyes & nape
    D X-XIII, 11-22 (fewer spines than rays)
    fin rays unbranched, except on C
    teeth - numerous, 1 row, incisors, + lower rear large canines
    no scales
  • cirri: +/-nostrils & eyes, usually not nape
    head often rough
    D continuous, usually more spines than rays
    D & A bases long
    no LL
    almost always no scales
  • cirri: nostrils, eye & nape
    1 D, more spines than soft rays
    D & A: long bases
    all fin rays unbranched
    pelvics I (internal) 2-3
    LL variable
    rear body: smooth scales
  • head large, broad, top flattened; eyes above
    D 0/III-IV
    mouth large, vertical, lips with skin flaps
    behind operculum: large spine
    A no spines