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  • D continuous
    closed mouth - rear of top jaw bone usually exposed
    roof of mouth - small teeth
    3 opercular spines
    A III
  • large eye
    opercle no spines
    preopercle: smooth ridge before its edge
    D VI + I, 9
    LL contiuous to C, 23-25
    maxilla wide, partly concealed with mouth closed, no scales
    A II, 8-9
  • forehead: sloping or concave
    D VIII + I, 8-11, well separated
    scales large, rough
    lower jaw strongly protruding
    A: III large
    LL: to end tail fin
  • rear nostril: bunch cirri
    D: spines with cirri
    pectoral: lower 5 rays thick, elongate, deeply notched
  • D continuous XI-XIV, 6-10
    operculum: < / = 2 flat spines
    pelvic - 1st ray elongate
    LL absent/interrupted
  • rear of bone under eye hidden by scales
    D XII-XIV, continuous
    chin 2-6 pores + pit
    A III
    scales between eye and mouth
  • deep, compressed
    C + large soft lobes of D & A -> "3 tails"
    D XII, 15-16, no notch
    roof of mouth no teeth
    preopercle strongly serrated
    A III
  • with mouth closed - top jaw partly hidden
    D continuous, X
    teeth cónical, on mouth roof
    chin - no pores
    preopercle serrated
    no scales - snout, under eye, lower jaw
  • opercle - 2 flat points
    preopercle finely serrated
    D VIII-IX, I, 10-13, deeply notched
    top jaw expanded at rear
    small cónical teeth: jaws, roof of mouth, 2 rows on tongue
  • oblong, robust
    D notched, XI-XII strong spines
    small teeth: jaws, roof of mouth, tongue
    operculum: horizontal ridge + 2 spines
    scales small, rough
  • head large, spiny
    horizontal bony ridge under eye
    D VIII-XVIII (spines strong, venomous)
    spines: opercle 2, preopercle 3-5
  • D XI-XIV, continuous
    mouth small
    teeth: cónical/incisors at front, molars at side
    roof mouth - no teeth
    A III
    no scales: snout, eye to mouth
  • most of head & jaws scaled
    D IX, 10, no notch
    top of top jaw covered when mouth closed
    lower front teeth large, exposed, fit in top-jaw notch
    operculum 2 spines